"Demographic transition" (Wikipedia article) - a highly detailed article on this problem/model. From the article: "Demographic transition (DT) refers to the transition from high birth and death rates to lower birth and death rates as a country develops from a pre-industrial to an industrialized economic system."
This EDITABLE lecture provides an outline for human populations and demographic transition models. A student outline is included for note-taking. Topics covered include: Measurable characteristics of populations Birth and Death Rates Demography Age Structure Diagrams Stages and Examples of Demographic Transition Impacts of Population Growth Achieving Population Stability