It helps me to think of EAS (electrophilic aromatic substitution) groups like this. The charges listed are not really there-the carbons are not actually fully charged, the charge labels are there to illustrate areas of low electron density (+) and areas of high electron density (-). Recall that nucleophiles go for the (+) areas. This is why groups direct. Electron donating groups=EDG Electron withdrawing groups=EWG Halides are technically EWG, but they act as ortho/para directors anyways.
W: VERY HELPFUL EXPLANATION! Electron-donating & -withdrawing Groups
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Credit: Image donated by Corbis-Bettmann In July 1935, Farnsworth Television Laboratories introduced a combination radio and television receiving set that it demonstrated to a group of radio experts and newspaper men. Here, Philo T. Farnsworth shows the set to Mabel Bernstein.