Sanātana Dharma (Devanagari: सनातन धर्म meaning "eternal dharma" or "eternal order") which has been proposed as an alternative name for Hinduism (Hindi Hindu Dharm हिन्दू धर्म,) "Hinduism" is a fairly modern term promoted first by Westerners.
This depiction of Kali and Shiva references the human experience of death. Kali, who represents dissolution mates with Shiva, who represents creation. She drives him mad and he forgets who he is. For a time, Shiva is lost. Such is death.