Photoshop tutorial on dispersion effect: you take a duplicated cutout of the subject, then place it directly behind the subject. Then you apply a layer mask and bring it back using splatter brushes.
How to cut anything out in Photoshop, from Spoon Graphics.
How to Cut Out Hair in Photoshop - Phlearn, Fringing, clone stamp, trees
Photoshop: Transform Photos into Pencil Drawings Tutorial