Both eastern and western missionaries competed in eastern Europe. Roman Catholics and their Latin alphabet, prevailed in czechoslovakia, Hungary, and Poland. Eastern Europe also received influx of Jews from the Middle East and western Europe.
Catherine the Great planned to seize territory from neighboring Poland. Poland had once been a great European power, but its rulers were incapable of centralizing their power or ending the influence of Polish nobility. Its divided government was not prepared to stand up to the increasing strength of Austria, Prussia, and Russia.