No one person is entirely responsibly for what we today call formal (or predicate) logic, but perhaps closest comes #Frege. Frege's new logical language was designed, in part, to resolve certain paradoxes in #philosophy by including #quantifiers (which defined the numbers of something). Despite being groundbreaking, it was not until the better-known, and better liked, Bertrand #Russell wrote extensively about (and therefore promoted) Frege, that it ignited the philosophical world.

This E-Lecture builds upon Predicate Logic I and discusses the main principles of quantification. Handke explains how to use and interpret the universa.

In your first year as an undergraduate philosopher, you will have to do some formal logic. This book starts very sloooowly but gets going and explains predicate logic very clearly. We are researching for an we are developing.

This first E-Lecture on Predicate Logic is meant as a gentle introduction. It first points out why propositional logic alone is not sufficient for the formal.