There are no smart clothes and no gaiety among the British migrants, and none of the Italian stewards speaks English

Immigrant ship bound for Australia: from the archive, 17 December 1958

A group of children aged between six and thirteen board a train at London"s St Pancras Station, en route to new homes in Australia

The Philadelphia-born photographer talks to Raymond Gardner about her breakthrough in documentary making

An interview with photojournalist Eve Arnold: from the archive, 13 December 1971

Eve Arnold ( April 1912 – January was an American photojournalist. She joined Magnum Photos agency in and became a full member in

German actor Eva Mattes, who made her name in films by Rainer Werner Fassbinder, dons a beard to play the controversial director himself

The female part of a man called Eva: from the archive, 22 December 1984

Originally published in the Guardian on 22 December German actor Eva Mattes, who made her name in films by Rainer Werner Fassbinder, dons a beard to play the controversial director himself

The latest innovation at Victoria Baths, Manchester - a therapeutic jacuzzi - leaves our reporter feeling a little strange

A ‘tonic for the jaded’ at the public baths: from the archive, 8 December 1952

Originally published in the Manchester Guardian on 8 December The latest innovation at Victoria Baths, Manchester - a therapeutic jacuzzi - leaves our reporter feeling a little strange

Edward Elgar is one of this country’s finest composers but a string of inadequate performances and his popularity among ‘the wrong sort’ do him no favours

Elgar’s new cello concerto deserves respect: from the archive, 3 December 1919

Originally published in the Manchester Guardian on 3 December Edward Elgar is one of this country’s finest composers but a string of inadequate performances and his popularity among ‘the wrong sort’ do him no favours

Labour’s demand for blood sports to be banned has spurred advocates of foxhunting into action

Hunt enthusiasts in pursuit of the voter: from the archive, 23 December 1978

Former Northumbria Police officer claims illegal fox hunts are widespread in the region

Prime minister Neville Chamberlain defends his policy of appeasement in the Commons following the Munich Agreement

Chamberlain to Hitler - waiting for commitment to peace: from the archive, 20 December 1938

Chamberlain (right) shakes hands with Mussolini after signing the Munich Agreement while Hitler and other European leaders look on, 30 September

Observer, 19 December 1976: Hair is becoming much more natural, a soft, shaggy, pretty look

Fashion archive, 19 December 1976: Put your rollers away, women advised

Observer, 19 December Hair is becoming much more natural, a soft, shaggy, pretty look

Bored of Buster Keaton and dancing to jazz records, these 1920s hipsters were ahead of their time with a return to their vintage childhood

Waxed fruit and side whiskers for an old-fashioned evening: from the archive, 19 December 1924

Originally published in the Manchester Guardian on 19 December Bored of Buster Keaton and dancing to jazz records, these hipsters were ahead of their time with a return to their vintage childhood

The events of 50 years ago that led to Barack Obama's historic announcement – as they happened in the pages of the newspaper

How US-Cuba relations broke down after Castro's revolution, from the Guardian archive

Cuba becomes the first Communist state in the western hemisphere as revolutionary forces led by Fidel Castro enter Havana in January and US-backed dictator Fulgencio Batista flees the country.

No longer just the pretty face who caught Paul’s eye, Linda McCartney has bigger things in mind

John, Paul, George, Ringo... and Linda: from the archive, 18 December 1974

Originally published in the Guardian on 18 December No longer just the pretty face who caught Paul’s eye, Linda McCartney has bigger things in mind

Panorama debates the merits of George Orwell’s 1984, whether ‘unadulterated horror’ or a sign of things to come

Horror play or warning? Orwell's 1984 discussed: from the archive, 16 December 1954

Originally published in the Manchester Guardian on 16 December Panorama debates the merits of George Orwell’s whether ‘unadulterated horror’ or a sign of things to come

Letters from the front in 1914 reveal the day of peace at Christmas during the first world war

The Amazing Truce: Christmas in the trenches in 1914

Christmas in the first world war trenches, Manchester Guardian 26 December

M. Georges Biard remarked the discomfort that frequent changes from ship to ship entailed upon tourists and formed the Société des Voyages d’Etudes Autour du Monde

French travel club offers round-the-world cruise: from the archive, 15 December 1875

Originally published in the Manchester Guardian on 15 December M. Georges Biard remarked the discomfort that frequent changes from ship to ship entailed upon tourists and formed the Société des Voyages d’Etudes Autour du Monde

Before collecting his Nobel prize in Oslo, the American civil rights leader visited immigrant communities and inspired the British civil rights movement

Martin Luther King stops off in the UK: from the archive, 12 December 1964

Originally published in the Guardian on 12 December Before collecting his Nobel prize in Oslo, the American civil rights leader visited immigrant communities and inspired the British civil rights movement

Born out of the trauma of the second world war, the landmark declaration unequivocally proclaimed the inherent rights of all human beings

UN proclaims the Declaration of Human Rights: From the archive, 11 December 1948

United Nations representatives from all regions of the world formally adopted the Universal Declaration of Human Rights on December

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