Fundus photograph of the right eye shows optic nerve head drusen with angioid streaks (black arrows); central choroidal neovascular membrane with subretinal fluid and hemorrhage; peau d'orange appearance of fundus
Circumferential retinal folds in peripapillary region due to papilledema. The main cause of optic nerve head swelling is blockage of the axoplasma transport and the blockage occurs at the lamina cribrosa. The optic nerve head can swell to the extent where it is extended forward into the vitreous as well as laterally. This lateral swelling causes the retina to buckle inward at the temporal aspect of the optic nerve head. The buckling is know as Paton's lines or folds.
The stem cells of the corneal epithelium are situated at the limbus, nestled within the undulating folds of the Palisades of Vogt. Stem cells are mainly located superiorly and inferiorly ,protected by the eyelids