·Open Medscience is a publishing platform for healthcare professionals to discuss aspects of medical imaging modalities and theranostics including the areas of…
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Target volume definition and dosimetric issues in radiotherapy treatment
In head and neck (H&N) tumours, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are used for standard examinations, for staging and for follow up. Both modalities provide anatomic information about the tumour and metastases.
Can serial FCH-PET/CT scans predict the response to treatments in castrate resistant prostate cancer
To evaluate the use of serial 18F-choline (FCH) PET/CT scans in order to monitor the response to chemotherapy in patients (pts) with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPCa).
Open letter to journal editors on: International Consensus Radiochemistry Nomenclature Guidelines
The resulting, harmonised nomenclature recommendations have now been published with the following aims: Provide a reference source for nomenclature good practice in the radiopharmaceutical sciences; Clarify the use of terms and rules concerning exclusively radiopharmaceutical terminology.
SPECT-CT Activity Quantification in 99mTc-MAA Acquisitions
SPECT has traditionally considered a non-quantitative imaging modality. However, the latest generation of SPECT/CT scanners has made quantitative SPECT practicable thanks to the implementation of new computational features such as attenuation, scatter, resolution recovery and dead time corrections.
Squaryl Molecular Metaphors – Application to Rational Drug Design and Imaging Agents
Molecular Metaphors is the application of squaryl building blocks towards creative functional group chemistry to produce lead compounds and imaging agents. This strategy is applied to rational drug design and to various imaging agents that would normally contain conventional functional group chemistry.
Brachytherapy – Delivering Radiation from the Inside
Brachytherapy techniques have been a powerhouse in the treatment of cancer since the beginning of the twentieth century. The advancement of other theranostic treatments has not removed Internal Radiotherapy entirely from the clinician’s armoury war in the ongoing quest to destroy cancer.
The role of positron emission mammography in breast cancer imaging
The diagnostic breast imaging tool Positron Emission Mammography uses short-lived positron-emitting isotopes to generate high-resolution tomographic images of cancer within the breast. PEM works by using an intravenous injection of the radiopharmaceutical 2-deoxy-2-(18F)fluoro-D-glucose abbreviated as 18F-FDG. Thereby, the radiopharmaceutical is based on the design of the radioisotope fluorine-18 (half-life = 109.8 mins) which is attached to the delivery compound deoxyglucose to produce 18F-FDG
Hyperpolarized Carbon-13 Pyruvate Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Hyperpolarization is the nuclear spin polarization of material in a magnetic field far beyond thermal equilibrium conditions determined by the Boltzmann distribution. The signal to noise ratio (SNR) in magnetic resonance can be intensified by the application of hyperpolarization. This novel technology is advancing in the area of clinical studies by using stable isotopic labels such as carbon-13.
Exploring Brain Function with Magnetic Resonance Imaging
Advancements in brain imaging using non-invasive technologies such as functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), magnetoencephalography (MEG) and electroencephalography (EEG) have allowed neuroscientists to obtain a greater understanding on how the brain functions with its environment.
Artificial Intelligence in Cancer Imaging
Radiology can trace its roots back to the Nobel Laureate Wilhelm Conrad Röntgen who discovered x-rays in 1895. Consequently, this discovery led to the imaging of the human body which contributes to assist with the diagnosis of various disease states.
Recent Advances In Ultrasound Imaging Technology
The National Health Service in England carried out 42.1 million imaging tests in the year to March 2017 compared with 40.7 million in the previous year. Plain X-ray radiography was the most common with 22.9 million procedures followed by 9.37 million diagnostic ultrasound scans. Also, computed tomography generated 4.82 million scans compared to 3.36 million magnetic resonance imaging scans.
Understanding Optic Nerve Imaging towards Glaucoma
The ten cranial nerves exit from the human brain including the brainstem and relay information to other parts of the body. One of these cranial nerves is the optic nerve (II) which is 50 mm long and myelinated by oligodendrocytes. It passes through the optic foramen in the sphenoid bone and travels to the eye. The primary function of the optic nerve is to transmit visual impulses from the retina to the visual cortex of the brain.
What is Myocardial perfusion imaging of the heart?
The most commonly used medical radioisotope in diagnostic procedures is the metastable nuclear isomer of technetium-99 and is known as technetium-99m (Tc-99m).This radioisotope was discovered in the 1950s by Walter Tucker and Margaret Greene at the Brookhaven National Laboratory. The first article on the use of technetium as a medical tracer was presented by Powell Richards at the 7th International Electronic and Nuclear Symposium in Rome in June of 1960.
Targeted Radionuclide Therapy Towards Precision Cancer Treatment
Targeted Radionuclide Therapy is a new approach in the treatment of cancer and this blog article will provide a general overview of the current status. This kind of therapy was first used to treat cancer for an ‘over-active’ thyroid using radioactive iodine-131 seeds. These seeds concentrate in the thyroid gland and emit strong gamma and beta particle radiation to kill the cancer cells leaving the healthy cells mostly intact.
A Bright Future for Robotic Surgery
Robotic surgery are types of minimally invasive surgical procedures that allow doctors to perform complex operations with greater precision and control compared to conventional techniques. Artificial Intelligence and Cybernetics are misinterpreted concepts. However, they differ in many ways. For example, the ideas of Artificial Intelligence is to make computers smart compared to Cybernetics which is to understand and build systems that can achieve goals.
Targeting Tumours with Proton Beam Therapy
In July 2018, Simon Hardacre was the first person in the UK to receive high energy proton beam therapy for the treatment of an aggressive form of prostate cancer at the Rutherford Cancer Centre in Newport, South Wales. This is currently the only clinic in the UK where high energy proton beam therapy is available.
Medical X-Ray Imaging using Computed Tomography
This was a question proposed in 1967 when the British electrical engineer Sir Godfrey Hounsfield (1919-2004) was out walking in the countryside. Initially, this thought had nothing to do with medicine but was merely an idea that you could determine what was in a box by taking X-ray readings at all angles around the object. In order to develop the concept further, he assembled a computer to be able to obtain position points by focusing X-rays at various angles to create an image of the object.
EXPLORER PET-CT Scanner: A Total Body Experience
The EXPLORER Whole Body Scanner and its capabilities reminded me about the ‘Fantastic Voyage’. The Fantastic Voyage was a 1966 American science fiction film about a submarine crew who were shrunk to a microscopic size. Subsequently, they ventured into the human body of an injured scientist to repair damage to his brain. The synergy is the ability of the EXPLORER to track a radiopharmaceutical through the human body and locate the disease state in real time.
Radiopharmaceuticals used in Nuclear Medicine
Radiopharmaceuticals primarily consist of a radioisotope which is incorporated into a pharmaceutical with the ability to evaluate a disease state inside the human body. The pharmaceutical is used to transport the radioisotope to a certain organ, tissues or particular cells within the body. In some instances, radioisotopes can be used in their ionic or inert form without attachment to an organic molecule.
Radiometals for Diagnostic Imaging and Theranostics
The first radiometal molybdenum-99/technetium-99m generator was developed at the Brookhaven National Laboratory in 1959, subsequently, in 1964, technetium-99m radiotracers were being established at the Argonne National Laboratory. Currently, 85% of radiopharmaceuticals use technetium-99m based imaging agents. These imaging agents can be used to evaluate organ function, detect cancer, measure blood flow and follow metabolic processes.
Spotting Breast Cancer
In 2016-17, a breast cancer screening programme was carried out in England and the following facts were reported: 2.2 million over the age of 45 were screened (34% increase from the previous decade); 71.1% of women took up the breast imaging invitation; 18,402 women aged over 45 had cancer and correlated to 8.4 cases per 1,000 women screened.
Artificial Intelligence Machine Medicine
Alan Turing features on the back of a new £50 banknote he not only cracked the Enigma code during World War II but was a pioneer of machine learning. In 1950, he came up with the Turing test, published in a paper called ‘Computing Machinery and Intelligence.‘ Turing proposed that a method of inquiry in the application of Artificial Intelligence (AI) must be able to determine if a computer system is capable of thinking like a human being.
Cyber Attacks on Medical Imaging Systems
Cyber security is paramount in the protection of medical imaging systems. In May 2017, a global cyber attack began to hit large organisations such as the UK’s National Health Service (NHS). During these attacks, patient operations were cancelled, x-rays, test results and patient records became unavailable and communication channels did not function. The WannaCry attack cost the NHS more than £92 million. These cyber hackers infected computers in 150 countries using WannaCry ransomware.
Coronavirus Spikes CT and Ultrasound Imaging
The disease COVID-19 is caused by Coronavirus virions that are enveloped spherical shaped virus particles with a diameter ranging from 80 to 160 nanometres (625 smaller than a single strand width of hair). These virus particles contain surface ‘crown’ projections of up to 20 nm in length covering the entire virion surface.
Medical Imaging Technologies
Open Medscience is a publishing platform for healthcare professionals to discuss aspects of medical imaging modalities and theranostics including the areas of radiology, ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging, nuclear medicine imaging (PET and SPECT) and radiation therapy.