The Timbuktu Manuscripts showing both mathematics and astronomy.The Timbuktu Manuscripts - or Mali Manuscripts - some of which date back to the century, are Arabic and African texts that hark back to the city’s glorious past, when Muslim merchants wou
The Songhay people dominated the middle reaches of the Niger valley. Songhay became an independent state in the seventh century. By the rulers were Muslims and had a capital at Gao. Songhay won freedom from Mali by the and prospered as a trading state.