Gender

In one form or another, contemporary sociological theories of gender generally begin with the assertion that gender is a social construct, but what does that…
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Views on how far the country has come on gender equality differ widely by gender and by party, 2020 Source: Pew Research Center
Majority of Americans say gender equality is very important, whether they identify as feminists or not, 2020 Source: Pew Research Center
Gender Gap in Poverty Rates over a Lifetime  Percentage of People Living in Poverty  Source: U.S. Census Bureau

Gender: Measurements of Equality

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An interesting intertext to consider J. Howard Miller’s "Rosie The Riveter – We Can Do It!" poster for the War Production Co-Ordinating Committee. While the iconic image of Rosie the Riveter challenges the stereotypical view of women as confined to the domestic sphere, this similiar looking ad for Tide appears to be reinforcing the connection between women and domesticity.
In the early 19th century, a new way of thinking about women and their so-called “natural” duties and inclinations began to take shape. Prominent among these incipient ideas was that women are most virtuous when they are competent in the domestic sphere. Historians dubbed this new way of thinking The Cult of True Womanhood and echoes of it endure to this day. Take this ad for Jell-O Pudding Tarts. The premise behind it is that while women...
In the early 19th century, a new way of thinking about women and their so-called “natural” duties and inclinations began to take shape. Prominent among these incipient ideas was that women are most virtuous when they are competent in the domestic sphere. Historians dubbed this new way of thinking The Cult of True Womanhood and echoes of it endure to this day. This advertisement for Total from the General Mills company works with the premise that cleaning the home is women's work.

Gender: Women & Domesticity

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"There a whole handful of reasons to try new Tame" [click on this image to find a short video and analysis of the frequency of rape jokes on prime time television]
"It's daring. It's audacious. It's the bolder look in shirts. You never know what results you'll get until you try!" 1949.  Van Heusen's advertising campaigns were not subtle in their efforts to associate their shirts with patriarchal power.
Broomsticks Slacks Advertisement, Playboy Magazine, October 1970.  This advertisement for pants is a illustrates the tendency among advertisers to depict women as subservient and submissive vis-a-vis men.

Gender: Women & Submissiveness

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What people think gender is: boy/girl. What gender actually is: Malleable social construct. Artist: Based on work by @blessthismess
[click on this image to find two short clips and an analysis of Judith Butler's theory of gender and performativity]

Gender: Gender Identity/Gender Expression

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...while trying to make those choices for you.  A: "So if you're such a feminist, why do you shave?" B: "If you're such a feminist, why do you think that's any of your business?"  Artist: Naoise Dolan
People treat your choices like headline news... "Woman doesn't shave own hair off own body!!"  Source: Naoise Dolan
What should bodies look like? What kind of body counts as attractive? There is a persistent misconception that people are somehow genetically predisposed to be attracted to particular body types, but it's not so simple. Preferences for fat or skinny bodies--whether it pertains to what one seeks in a partner or what one seeks for themselves--have varied over time and space. But so too have ideas about what marks a body as officially too fat or too skinny.  This advertisement...

Gender: Beauty Standards & Bodies

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In 1925, when astronomers believed stars to be made of heavy elements, a 25 year old student named Cecilia H. Payne wrote a revolutionary doctoral dissertation. She claimed that our Sun, all stars, and thus the universe itself, were composed mainly of hydrogen.  Henry Norris Russell, the leading contemporary expert on stellar spectra, dismissed the young woman’s thesis as “impossible”, but four years later published a paper of his own announcing the exact same conclusions...Source: bwareofimages
NASA Astronaut Christina Hammock Koch and NASA Astronaut Jessica Meir made history on October 18, 2019, by conducting the first all-woman spacewalk outside the International Space Station (ISS). The Expedition 61 flight engineers ventured into the vacuum of space at 7:38 a.m. EDT to swap out a failed power controller that regulates the batteries used to collect and distribute power to the orbital laboratory--a task that took a total of seven hours and 17 minutes to complete.

Gender: Women in STEM

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The Mujeres Libres (Free Women) of Spain emerged as a way to empower women. Responding to sexism and classism, they set up literacy programs, technical classes, and social studies. They ran a hospital, which provided birth & post-natal care for women, as well as classes on child & maternal health, birth control & sexuality. They helped to establish rural collectives with anarchists & created networks of women anarchists. They even checked out reports of sexist behavior.--Barcelona, Spain,   1936
The women pictured are, from left to right, Elizabeth Moku, Alice Cho, Katherine Lowe, and Hilda Van Gieson. The photo was taken during a training exercise for female civilian workers at Pearl Harbor during World War II.

Gender: Women as Warriors

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"Listen to me. Gender is a construct, society is a construct, money is a construct. But bedtime is very, very real."  Artist: Will McPhail
Sociologist at a gender reveal party  h/t Henry Zonio

Gender: Gendering Children/Gender Reveal Parties

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"Roses are red Gender is performative Mass market romance is heteronormative," found in a women’s restroom at the Johannes Gutenberg University Mainz in Germany

Gender: Performativity/Performance

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In honor of Valentine's Day, what's the most obvious thing you've ever been mansplained about? ~ @J_Dot_J At a NASA Earth meeting 10 years ago, a white male post doc interrupted me to tell me that I didn't understand human drivers of fire, that I def needed to read McCarty et al. Looked him in the eye, pulled my long hair back so he coulc read my name tag. 'I'm McCarty et al.' ~ @jmccarty_geo
People who can't detect irony  A: "You need to stop being confrontational." B: "You mean it's rude to shove advice in people's faces!" A: "Yes!! Exactly!"  Artist: Naoise Dolan
“I know some women think I’m sexist but I’ve thought about it a LOT and I don’t think I am  I find it so NARROW-MINDED how women don’t UNQUESTIONINGLY AGREE WITH ME.”  ~ @mansplain  Artist: Naoise Dolan

Gender: Mansplaining

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a phenomenon in which negative characteristics ascribed to men (e.g., insatiable sex drives, competitiveness, 'natural' aggression) are offered as acceptable justifications of men's dominance over women. Citation: Wade and Ferree. 2015. Gender: Ideas, Interactions, Institutions. Norton.
Believing "hey what if women aren't as smart as men?" is some *radical new thought* you're *shaking up the system* by proposing is .... weird. It's like strolling into a meeting on "the future of transportation in America" and saying "have you considered the automobile?" Then getting really upset when nobody acknowledges you as the fucking savior of the whole industry with your radical insights. ~ @Mc_Heckin_Duff
"The thing is, it's patriarchy that says men are stupid and monolithic and unchanging and incapable."

Gender: Exculpatory Chauvinism

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Gender: Fragile Masculinity/Toxic Masculinity

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Source: Pew Research Center Infographics, Pew Research Center, Surveys, Research, Captions, Answers, Infographic, Pie Chart, Sex
Partisans differ on whether gender is determined by sex assigned at birth, 2021
Source: Pew Research Center
a phenomenon in which negative characteristics ascribed to men (e.g., insatiable sex drives, competitiveness, 'natural' aggression) are offered as acceptable justifications of men's dominance over women. Citation: Wade and Ferree. 2015. Gender: Ideas, Interactions, Institutions. Norton. Ideas, Dominant, Aggressive, Phenomena, Sex Drive, Men's, Men, Women
Exculpatory Chauvinism
a phenomenon in which negative characteristics ascribed to men (e.g., insatiable sex drives, competitiveness, 'natural' aggression) are offered as acceptable justifications of men's dominance over women. Citation: Wade and Ferree. 2015. Gender: Ideas, Interactions, Institutions. Norton.
two tweets that are on top of each other with the same person in them
Most men believe themselves to be insightful, when in reality they don't even pass the Turing Test.
Believing "hey what if women aren't as smart as men?" is some *radical new thought* you're *shaking up the system* by proposing is .... weird. It's like strolling into a meeting on "the future of transportation in America" and saying "have you considered the automobile?" Then getting really upset when nobody acknowledges you as the fucking savior of the whole industry with your radical insights. ~ @Mc_Heckin_Duff
The Media Is Lying to You About Men’s Emotions, And It’s Really F*cked Up – Here’s a Healthier View
two circles with the words what people think genderer is, boy and genderer actually isn't
What people think gender is
What people think gender is: boy/girl. What gender actually is: Malleable social construct. Artist: Based on work by @blessthismess
What Do We Mean When We Say “Toxic Masculinity?”
Sexism Isn't "Us vs. Them"
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Sacagawea (1788 – 1812 or 1884) was a Lemhi Shoshone woman who, at age 16, met and helped the Lewis and Clark Expedition explore the Louisiana Territory. She traveled with the expedition thousands of miles from North Dakota to the Pacific Ocean, helping to establish cultural contacts with Native Peoples and contributing to the expedition's knowledge of natural history in different regions. Poetry, Motivation, Art, Poet, Books, North America, America, Quites
"You will turn 18 with a baby on your back leading Lewis and Clark across North America"
Sacagawea (1788 – 1812 or 1884) was a Lemhi Shoshone woman who, at age 16, met and helped the Lewis and Clark Expedition explore the Louisiana Territory. She traveled with the expedition thousands of miles from North Dakota to the Pacific Ocean, helping to establish cultural contacts with Native Peoples and contributing to the expedition's knowledge of natural history in different regions.
In honor of Valentine's Day, what's the most obvious thing you've ever been mansplained about? ~ @J_Dot_J At a NASA Earth meeting 10 years ago, a white male post doc interrupted me to tell me that I didn't understand human drivers of fire, that I def needed to read McCarty et al. Looked him in the eye, pulled my long hair back so he coulc read my name tag. 'I'm McCarty et al.' ~ @jmccarty_geo Permanently Exhausted Pigeon, Misogyny, Stupid People, Tough, Turn Ons, Interrupting
In honor of Valentine's Day, what's the most obvious thing you've ever been mansplained about?
In honor of Valentine's Day, what's the most obvious thing you've ever been mansplained about? ~ @J_Dot_J At a NASA Earth meeting 10 years ago, a white male post doc interrupted me to tell me that I didn't understand human drivers of fire, that I def needed to read McCarty et al. Looked him in the eye, pulled my long hair back so he coulc read my name tag. 'I'm McCarty et al.' ~ @jmccarty_geo
Butler's "Gender Performativity" Explained
Artist: bloglikeanegyptian (Deena)
Did you ever hear the one about the guy who told sexist astronaut jokes on Twitter?
a man with a beard wearing a beanie and looking at the camera, in front of a black background
"Boys are trained to externalize our pain, when something bad has happened to us, we need to do something bad to someone else, avenge the humiliation we've suffered, the shame we've experienced." ~ Jackson Katz
a black and white photo with a quote from pope longeran on the back of a baseball cap
"We have a duty to have those conversations, and for men to initiate them. I know women are tired of having to walk men through this. We can have these conversations amongst each other, not looking for forgiveness, looking to re-route that behaviour." ~ Pope Lonergan
Views on how far the country has come on gender equality differ widely by gender and by party, 2020 Source: Pew Research Center Equal Rights, Country, Sayings, Gender Equality, Equality, Our Country, Things To Come, Center
Views on how far the country has come on gender equality differ widely by gender and by party, 2020
Views on how far the country has come on gender equality differ widely by gender and by party, 2020 Source: Pew Research Center
a cartoon depicting two women talking to each other in front of a computer screen with the caption what's the difference between being aggressive and being aggressive
A: "What's the difference between being assertive and being aggressive?" B: "Your gender." Artist: Haracek
Majority of Americans say gender equality is very important, whether they identify as feminists or not, 2020 Source: Pew Research Center Public Opinion, Social Science Research, Social Trends
Majority of Americans say gender equality is very important, whether they're feminists or not, 2020
Majority of Americans say gender equality is very important, whether they identify as feminists or not, 2020 Source: Pew Research Center
a line graph shows the percentage of poverty and poverty by gender gap in poverty rate
Gender Gap in Poverty Rates over a Lifetime Percentage of People Living in Poverty Source: U.S. Census Bureau
Poverty Rates by Age and Sex, 2015  Source: U.S. Census Bureau Poverty Rate, Age 10, Social Class, Important Facts, Poverty, Facts, Income
Poverty Rates by Age and Sex, 2015 Source: U.S. Census Bureau
the number of men and women in different countries has been steadily declining over time, according to
Larger shares of men say men have more influence in decisions about household finances, 2019
Larger shares of men than women say men have more influence in decisions about household finances, 2019 Source: Pew Research Center
a red and white sign that says male eco action figure on it's side
In what sense is masculinity "fragile"?
As a 2019 article from The Atlantic points out, sociologist Raewyn Connell and others have theorized that "common masculine ideals such as social respect, physical strength, and sexual potency become problematic when they set unattainable standards. Falling short can make boys and men insecure and anxious, which might prompt them to use force in order to feel, and be seen as, dominant and in control...
Source: Pew Research Center Character Art, Decision Making, Character
Most see gender parity when it comes to making decisions about religion, 2019
Source: Pew Research Center
the world map shows that most gay men in the country is very important to each other
Most say gender equality in their country is very important, 2019
Source: Pew Research center
the percentage of men who have more opportunity to be leaders in their own community than on social media
Men seen as having more opportunities to be leaders in their community, 2019
Source: Pew Research Center
the percentage of men who are more likely able to use social media than women in other countries
Sizable shares say men have more influence than women in decisions about household finances, 2019
In many countries, sizable shares say men have more influence than women in decisions about household finances, 2019 Source: Pew Research Center
Source: Pew Research Center Better Life, Country Men, Best, Life
Few think women have a better life than men, 2019
Source: Pew Research Center
women are more likely to see men as having a better life than men in the country
Women more likely to see men as having a better life, 2019.
Source: Pew Research Center
the tweet is being posted to someone on their twitter account, and it looks like
If you read a scifi tale about a plague and it had dudes going "I won't WEAR a MASK because it THREATENS my MASCULINITY" you would assume the author were a very intense feminist trying to make some kind of hamfisted point but actually yeah there are men literally doing this. ~ @eevee
some people are not happy about the same thing in their life, but they're more important than others
Majorities think men & women have about the same influence in making family decisions, 2019
Majorities think men and women have about the same influence in making important family decisions, 2019. Source: Pew Research Center
some women are more likely than men to point to social roles when it comes to gender differences
Women are more likely than men to point to societal factors when it comes to gender differences Source: Pew Research Center
a pie chart with the words most people do not think about what culture teaches women to speak
Do you think our culture teaches women to speak up about harassment and assault?
Do you think our culture teaches women to speak up about harassment and assault, without fear of the consequences on their own lives? Most voters do not think our culture teaches women to speak up without fear of consequences on their own lives. Source: "The Immediate, Short-term, and Long-term Effects of the Kavanaugh Hearings on the Electorate." Results from a National Survey of Voters. PerryUndem, April 15, 2019
Do you think our culture teaches women to speak up about harassment and assault, without fear of the consequences on their own lives?  Women across the board and young voters are among the most likely to think our culture does not teach women to speak up without fear.  Source: "The Immediate, Short-term, and Long-term Effects of the Kavanaugh Hearings on the Electorate." Results from a National Survey of Voters. PerryUndem, April 15, 2019 Culture
Do you think our culture teaches women to speak up about harassment and assault?
Do you think our culture teaches women to speak up about harassment and assault, without fear of the consequences on their own lives? Women across the board and young voters are among the most likely to think our culture does not teach women to speak up without fear. Source: "The Immediate, Short-term, and Long-term Effects of the Kavanaugh Hearings on the Electorate." Results from a National Survey of Voters. PerryUndem, April 15, 2019
a pink poster with information about gender and the number of girls in their school's class
The Distorted Sex Ratio in India
Gender Equality-In developing countries, 1 in 3 girls is married by the time she turns 18. That's 14 million girls per year, and nearly 39,000 girls daily--Pregnancy and childbirth is the leading cause of death of 15-19 year-old girls in the developing world--Girls are 3x more likely to be malnourished than boys--65 million girls are missing from primary and secondary school--[Click on this image to find a short video and analysis exploring the causes of the distorted sex ratio in India]
a line graph showing the percentage of people living in poverty, by race and ethnic
The Priorities of Young People Vary Widely by Race and Ethnicity (Gender Equality)
Source: PRRI / MTV 2017 National Youth Survey
two graphs show the differences between competitive and competitive performance for each individual team, as well as
Log Odds of Respondents Indicating that Women (Rather Than Men) Have More Communion, Agency, Competence, or Intelligence. Source: Eagly, A. H., Nater, C., Miller, D. I., Kaufmann, M., & Sczesny, S. (2019, July 18). Gender Stereotypes Have Changed: A Cross-Temporal Meta-Analysis of U.S. Public Opinion Polls From 1946 to 2018. American Psychologist. Advance online publication.
the graph shows that there are two different types of competition
Communion/Agency/Competence/Intelligence Is [(1) More True of Women; (2) More True of Men; or (3) Equally True of Both Men and Women] - The % answering "equal" in competence increased significantly. While the responses indicating that either sex is more competent than the other declined, women were deemed more competent than men. Source: Eagly, Nater, Miller, Kaufmann, & Sczesny, S. 2019. "Gender Stereotypes Have Changed." American Psychologist. Advance online publication.
an info sheet showing the number of people in different countries, and what they are doing
How big of a problem is sexism in our society today?
Perceiving sexism as a "big problem" peaked in the midst of the first wave of #MeToo stories. Compared to November 2018, fewer voters now consider sexism a "big problem." Among most segments, the proportions look similar to when we measured views right after the 2016 election. Democratic women remain at relatively high proportions saying sexism is a big problem. Source: "The Immediate, Short-term, and Long-term Effects of the Kavanaugh Hearings on the Electorate." PerryUndem, April 15, 2019
To you personally, how important is it that there are equal numbers of men and women in positions of power in our society?  About 6 in 10 voters say it is important to them personally that there are equal numbers of men and women in positions of power in society. Republican men and Democratic men are mirror opposites of each other.  Source: "The Immediate, Short-term, and Long-term Effects of the Kavanaugh Hearings on the Electorate." PerryUndem, April 15, 2019 Society, Men And Women, Opposites
How important is it that there are equal numbers of men & women in positions of power in our society
To you personally, how important is it that there are equal numbers of men and women in positions of power in our society? About 6 in 10 voters say it is important to them personally that there are equal numbers of men and women in positions of power in society. Republican men and Democratic men are mirror opposites of each other. Source: "The Immediate, Short-term, and Long-term Effects of the Kavanaugh Hearings on the Electorate." PerryUndem, April 15, 2019
a line graph showing the number of people in different countries, and how they use it
Do you think our society is a patriarchy?
Do you think our society is a patriarchy? A patriarchy is when men have larger shares of power than women across systems in society, such as in government and business. After hearing a definition, 64% of respondents think our society is a patriarchy. Source: "The Immediate, Short-term, and Long-term Effects of the Kavanaugh Hearings on the Electorate." Results from a National Survey of Voters. PerryUndem, April 15, 2019
women in the past year are more likely
Most Young People Say Discrimination against Women Has Stayed the Same in the Past Year
Source: PRRI / MTV 2017 National Youth Survey
a bar graph shows the percentage of women who have been reported on social media in recent years
About Half of Young People Say Media Presents a Fair and Accurate Representation of Women
Source: PRRI / MTV 2017 National Youth Survey
bar chart showing percentage of women in the u s
Young Women More Likely to Say Women Face Discrimination in the U.S. today
Source: PRRI / MTV 2017 National Youth Survey
a bar chart showing the number of gender - less women in each country
Gender Equality, 2014
Source: World Economic Forum
Inequality, Beliefs, Reality, Reproductive Rights, Subconscious Mind
the number of individuals in india has been steadily declining over the past 10 years, according to
Improvements in Gender Equality over the Past 10 Years The United Nations Gender Inequality Index Is a Composite Measure of Inequality that Incorporates several of the individual measures referenced above (lower numbers are better). Source: United Nations Development Programme - UNDP - Gender Inequality Index / Christopher Groskopf / NPR
an info poster showing women and men in different countries, with the numbers on each side
Are Men and Women Equal? - 98% of Australian girls aged 15-17 report to feeling they are treated differently than boys, particularly in media and sports. - 40% of girls believe their gender could stop them from becoming a future leader. - Girls and women are far more likely to be objectified in media. 83% of women and 17% of men were sexualized on magazine covers. - 80% of Australian women have been street harassed. - 88% of mainstream pornography shows scenes of women being treated violent
the number of black women in each country
Best & worst metros for black women's econ outcomes (Among cities with at least 100,000 black women)
Source: Analysis by Junia Howell (David H. Montgomery / City Lab)
the number of black women in each country
Best & worst metros for black women's health outcomes
Best & worst metros for black women's health outcomes (Among cities with at least 100,000 black women) Source: Analysis by Junia Howell (David H. Montgomery / City Lab)
the number of women who are most likely to be married is shown in this graph
Best & worst metros for black women's overall outcomes
Best & worst metros for black women's overall outcomes (Among cities with at least 100,000 black women) *The index looks at inequities for black women in terms of income status, health conditions, and educational accomplishment. Source: Analysis by Junia Howell (David H. Montgomery / City Lab)
a bar chart that shows the percentage of college graduates
A quarter see sexism as a very big problem
Source: Pew Research Center
some people say men have better life than women in their country, and others are more likely
More people now say men have a better life than women in their country, 2019
Source: Pew Research Center
the number of women in each country is shown on this graph, and it shows that they
Women less optimistic than men about gender equality in their country, 2019
Source: Pew Research Center
the most agrees that gender equality is important to men in their country, according to those
Most agree that gender equality is important, 2019
Source: Pew Research Center
the number of women in different countries is shown
Larger shares of women than men say gender equality is very important to many countries, 2019
Source: Pew Research Center
a bar chart showing the percentage of women in their country's gender and age
Majorities in most nations see gender equality as likely in their country, 2019
Source: Pew Research Center
a pile of books sitting on top of a table
Moralists in the 17th century panicked over novels. They reasoned that women, being somehow unable to distinguish between reality and fiction, would act out the immoral situations they read about in novels. Source: Cavallo, Chartier, and Cochrane. 2003. A History of Reading in the West
an advertisement for post office women
Post Secrets
People thought the Post Office would ruin women. Because the Post Office enabled women to send and receive letters unsupervised, the moralists of the 1870s were sure women would engage in "clandestine correspondence with unprincipled men." Source: Lapham's Quarterly
an old fashioned telephone sitting on top of a table with the caption, when women started using the telephone to have conversations, men freaked out
When women started using the telephone to have conversations, men freaked out
In 1909, telephones started appearing in homes, and women started using them socially. This panicked their husbands so much that they started making fun of women for it and calling them out on their "futility and frivolity" in newspapers, journals, and books. The average length of those calls was 7.5 minutes. Source: Claude S. Fischer, 1994. America Calling: A Social History of the Telephone to 1940.