# Automotive Engineering

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How to calculate the internal resistance of a battery cell
Internal resistance can be thought of as a measure of the “quality” of a battery cell. A low internal resistance indicates that the battery cell is able to deliver a large current with minimal voltage drop, while a high internal resistance indicates that the battery cell is less able to deliver a large current and experiences a larger voltage drop.
How to calculate aerodynamic drag force
How to calculate rolling resistance
How to calculate wheel curb climbing torque
Torque converter clutch
During most of the operation time of the torque converter, the speed match between the impeller and turbine is never achieved. At cruising speed, the torque converter can only pass around 85 % of the engine power to the transmission. This means that there is a lot of power lost in the torque converter, dissipated as heat. In order to improve its efficiency, manufacturers added a lock-up clutch to the torque converter.
How to calculate (determine) the gear ratio of the final drive (differential)
This article explains how the gear ratio for the final drive (differential) is chosen / calculated / determined for a given vehicle, for which we know certain parameters.
How a boost DC-DC converter works
Vehicle acceleration and performance online calculator
This online simulator is based on the vehicle model described in the article Vehicle acceleration and maximum speed modeling and simulation. The user can input different parameters and check the simulation results. The application remembers the previous simulation results and plots both set of data for direct comparison. Click the Simulate button below to get the first set of data. From the drop-down list select the physical parameter to be plotted.
How to calculate wheel and vehicle speed from engine speed
Vehicle and wheel speed can be calculated as a function of engine speed, if the parameters and status of the transmission are known.
How a mechanical centrifugal supercharger works
In four-stroke cycle internal combustion engines, mechanically driven centrifugal superchargers are used to boost the torque and power output of the engine per unit displaced volume.
Types of Hybrid Electric Vehicles (HEV)
Tutorial on different types (architectures) of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV), their working principles, advantages and disadvantages
What is a Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) ?
A Hybrid Electric Vehicle (HEV) is a vehicle which is using two energy sources for propulsion, at least one of the energy sources being electrical energy.
Tire model for longitudinal forces
The Pacejka’s Magic Formula tire models are widely used in professional vehicle dynamics simulations, and racing car games, as they are reasonably accurate, easy to program, and solve quickly. Each tire is characterised by a number of coefficients (10 – 20) for each important force that it can produce at the contact patch, typically lateral and longitudinal force, and self-aligning torque, as a best fit between experimental data and the model.
In this article we are going to simulate the longitudinal dynamics of a vehicle together with the control logic for gear shifting. As example, we are going to simulate a Mercedes CL 500, equipped with a 5.0L V8 petrol (gasoline) engine and a 7-speed automatic transmission (7G-tronic).