# Engineering and Technology

Articles and tutorials about engineering and technology

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Proportional (P) controller

A proportional controller (P-controller) is a type of feedback control system that adjusts the control signal of a system u(t) in proportion to the error e(t), calculated between the setpoint and the actual output y(t). This type of controller is commonly used in closed-loop control systems to ensure that the output of the system remains as close as possible to the setpoint.

Modeling and simulation of an automotive suspension

In this article we are going to determine the mathematical model (set of differential equations) of a simplified half-car model that includes an independent front and rear vertical suspension. The model will have two degrees of freedom: body pitch and vertical bounce. This model can be used as a starting point for investigating vehicle ride characteristics, having as perturbations road bumps and body pitch due to acceleration/deceleration events.